Alph is no longer for sale.

I am afraid revenue generated from Alph has not proven to be sufficient to justify its continued sale. I greatly appreciate the support of the folks who have purchased Alph in the past and hope that it will continue to serve you well in the future.

This and related pages will be maintained for archival purposes only.

Craig

Alph Deep Cut Turbo Expander Example

From your device, you can download the completed example

This example demonstrates the use of a turbo expander to cryogenically recover ethane from a natural gas feed.

Turbo Expander Demethanizer

The inlet gas is cooled by a network of heat exchangers after which the vapour portion is fed to an expander, while the liquid is flashed through a Joule Thompson valve. The liquid portion of the expander outlet is fed to the top of a demethanizer, while the entire outlet of the J-T values is fed in slightly lower in the tower.

The heat for the reboiler and two side exchangers is supplied by the cooling of the feed fluid, with 40% of the heat going to the reboiler and 30% to each of the side exchangers. To ensure high purity ethane after the heavier compounds are removed in later processing, the methane to ethane ratio in the bottom liquids should be no more than 0.02.

The power generated by the expander is used to recompress the sales gas as much as possible.

**feed**

The natural gas feed stream.

**lts**

The cooled feed fluid. A temperature of -50 C has been chosen and the subsequent calculation shows there is enough "cold" to achieve this, however some optimization is probably possible, especially if exchanger temperature approaches are examined.

**expout**

The vapour phase of the **lts** fluid is expanded in the **expander** tool to become this fluid, the liquid phase of which is fed to the top of the demethanizer.

**jtout**

The liquid phase of the **lts** fluid is flashed through a valve to the same pressure as **expout** to become this fluid, which is fed in its entirety to stage 2 (the third stage) of the demethanizer.

**ovhds**

The vapour leaving the top of the demethanizer.

**btms**

The demethanizer liquid product from the tower.

**mixedovhd**

The combination of the vapour phase of **expout** and the **ovhds** fluid. This is fed back into the heat exchanger network to help cool the **feed** fluid.

**warmovhd**

The is the **mixedovhd** after being warmed in the heat exchanger network. It's enthalpy is calculated by a heat balance, where the total heat removed from the **feed** fluid, minus the heat used by the side exchangers, is added to the **warmovhd** heat flow. The resulting temperature must be less than the **feed** temperature for the process to be feasible.

**salesgas**

The recompressed **warmovhd** fluid.

**demethq**

This is the sum of heat flows of the reboiler and two side exchangers used in the tower.

**dp**

A pressure drop value used in a few places.

**Expander**

The **lts** vapour is expanded and chilled by this tool. For this example the pressure is arbitrarily set to 2000 kPa, but could be subject to optimization. An adiabatic efficiency of 80% was used.

**demeth**

The demethanizer is the heart of this process. It is configured, rather arbitrarily, with 11 stages, the feeds going to stages 0 and 2 and with energy inputs on stages 5, 8 and 10. The top pressure is set to be the same as the **expander** outlet, while the bottom is that plus the **dp** variable.

The top temperature estimate is given as -90 C (close to the **expout** temperature), while the bottom temperature is estimated (fairly poorly as it turns out) as 15 C. The overhead flow rate is estimated at 1000 kgmole/h (the total methane in the feed to the tower is about 1100 kgmole/h) and the reflux estimate is just left at 1.

Each energy input has a specification:

**(#._1.l.x:0 / #._1.l.x:1 0 0.2) * 10**

the ratio of methane to ethane in the liquid from the bottom stage should be 0.02. The calculated error is multiplied by 10, just to tighten the convergence to a more precise value.**#.8.q / (#._1.q + 1e-10) - .75**

the ratio of the heat flow of the side exchanger on stage 8 to the reboiler heat flow should be 0.75. This is in keeping with the 40%, 30%, 30% ratio mentioned earlier (30/40 = 0.75). The addition of the 1e-10 term is just to prevent the possibility of a division by zero during the solution.**#.5.q / (#._1.q + 1e-10) - .75**

the stage 5 side exchanger will also be 0.75 times the reboiler duty.

**ovhdmix**

A mixer that combines the **ovhds** fluid from the tower with the vapour phase of the **expout** fluid from the expander.

**Compressor**

A compressor tool that compresses the **warmovhd** fluid to become the **salesgas**fluid. The outlet pressure is given by the formula:

{fromunit "kpa" "p" 2500} + #equatepower.0 * $dp

where **equatepower** is a function solver tool that solves when the compressor power requirement matches the power produced by the expander. The **{fromunit "kpa" "p" 2500}** sets 2500 kpa, in a unit system independent manner, as the base value at the initial solver output of 0. The solver output values can range from -10 to 10, so its value is scaled up using the $dp variable as a convenient value (dubious, but easy).

**equatepower**

The solver tool mentioned above. The error calculation is simply the sum of the expander and compressor power values, keeping in mind that an expanders power will be negative.